Employment Contracts in Poland: A Comprehensive Guide

  • 2023-10-16

When it comes to working in Poland, understanding the nuances of employment contracts is crucial. Employment contracts form the foundation of the employer-employee relationship, setting out the terms and conditions under which an individual is hired to work for a company. In this guide, we'll delve into the key aspects of employment contracts in Poland, ensuring that both employers and employees are well-informed about their rights and responsibilities.

Introduction to Employment Contracts in Poland

In Poland, employment contracts are regulated by the Labor Code, which outlines the legal framework for the employment relationship. Employment contracts in Poland can take various forms, including indefinite-term contracts, fixed-term contracts, and contracts for specific tasks or projects.

Types of Employment Contracts

a. Indefinite-Term Contracts

An indefinite-term contract, known as "umowa o pracę na czas nieokreślony" in Polish, is the most common type of employment contract. This contract does not have a predetermined end date and can be terminated by either party with proper notice. In most cases, a notice period of one month is required, although this can vary based on the terms of the contract and the employee's length of service.

b. Fixed-Term Contracts

Fixed-term contracts, or "umowa o pracę na czas określony," are used when the employment relationship is expected to last for a specific period or until a specific event occurs. These contracts must be in writing and should clearly state the reason for the fixed term. They can be renewed but generally cannot exceed a total of 33 months, including any renewals.

c. Contracts for Specific Tasks or Projects

"Umowa o pracę na czas określony" is a contract for a specified task or project, often referred to as a task-based contract. This type of contract is used when the employment relationship is tied to the completion of a specific task, project, or assignment. Once the task is completed, the contract terminates automatically.

Key Elements of an Employment Contract

a. Job Description and Responsibilities

The employment contract should clearly outline the job title, responsibilities, and tasks that the employee will be expected to perform. This helps prevent any ambiguity regarding the nature of the work.

b. Working Hours and Overtime

The contract should specify the regular working hours, including any details about shifts or flexible working arrangements. If overtime is expected, the terms for compensation or time off in lieu should be clearly stated.

c. Remuneration and Benefits

Details about the employee's salary, payment frequency, and any additional benefits such as health insurance, vacation days, and bonuses should be included in the contract.

d. Probationary Period

Employers often include a probationary period at the beginning of the employment relationship. During this time, both parties can assess if the job is a good fit. The duration of the probationary period should be clearly defined.

e. Termination Conditions

The contract should outline the conditions under which either party can terminate the contract. This includes notice periods, reasons for termination, and any special procedures to follow.

f. Confidentiality and Non-Compete Clauses

If necessary, confidentiality and non-compete clauses can be included in the contract to protect the employer's interests. These clauses should be reasonable in scope and duration.

Rights and Protections for Employees

Polish labor law provides certain rights and protections for employees that must be upheld in employment contracts:

a. Minimum Wage

Employers are obligated to pay employees at least the statutory minimum wage, which is periodically adjusted by the government.

b. Working Time Regulations

The Labor Code stipulates the maximum number of working hours per week and the mandatory rest periods between shifts to ensure the well-being of employees.

c. Paid Leave

Employees are entitled to paid leave, including annual vacation leave and other types of leave such as sick leave and maternity/paternity leave.

d. Protection Against Unfair Dismissal

Employees cannot be dismissed without proper justification, and employers must follow legal procedures to ensure fairness in termination. In order to make sure that your rights are not violated it is worthwhile to take the help of RPMS.

Negotiating Employment Contracts

While certain terms in employment contracts are non-negotiable due to legal requirements, some aspects can be negotiated between the employer and employee. These negotiations often revolve around salary, benefits, and special arrangements.

Enforcement and Dispute Resolution

In the event of a dispute between an employer and an employee regarding the terms of an employment contract, either party can seek resolution through Poland's labor courts. It's important for both parties to keep detailed records of communications and documents related to the employment relationship.


Employment contracts in Poland play a pivotal role in defining the rights and responsibilities of both employers and employees. Understanding the various types of contracts, key elements, and legal requirements is essential for maintaining a healthy and productive working relationship. Whether you're an employer drafting a contract or an employee reviewing one, being well-informed about the intricacies of employment contracts in Poland will lead to a smoother and more transparent employment experience.